10 Important Tests for Diabetes

You likely have diabetes if you experience symptoms like increased thirst, unexplained weight loss, frequent urination, increased appetite, or tingling in your feet or hands. 

Checking blood sugar levels is usually done in response to the abrupt onset of diabetes symptoms and complications. Because the side effects of diabetes and prediabetes develop more gradually, we may not be aware of them.

People over the age of 45 are advised to obtain a blood sugar check, and if the results appear to be normal, they should repeat the test every three years. Any person, regardless of age, with a body mass index greater than 25, as well as additional risk factors like hypertension, an inactive lifestyle, PCOS, having given birth to a child who weighed over 9 pounds, a history of pregnancy-related diabetes, extremely high cholesterol, a history of coronary disease, and having a member in the family with diabetes, should take this test. Given below is the list of top diabetes tests. 

HbA1C Test:

This blood test can display your normal blood glucose level for a few months. HbA1C test measures the rate of glucose in relation to haemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells. The amount of haemoglobin with sugar attached increases as blood glucose levels rise. You have diabetes if your A1C result is 6.5 percent or above on two different tests. A1C values between 5.7 and 6.4 percent indicate prediabetes. Under 5.7 is considered to be normal.

Fasting Blood Sugar Test:

Blood will be drawn from you after an overnight fast has been observed for the fasting blood sugar test. It is normal to have a fasting blood sugar level of less than 100 mg/dL. Prediabetes is defined as having a fasting blood sugar level between 100 and 125 mg/dL. You have diabetes if it is 126 mg/dL or above on two different tests.

A Complete Blood Count (CBC):

This blood test is used to assess a person’s general health and identify a variety of illnesses, from leukaemia to anaemia.

The CBC test assesses various elements and characteristics of a person’s blood, which typically include o2- carrying red blood cells, haemoglobin, white blood cells, hematocrit, the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells, the percentage of plasma in a person’s blood, and platelets, which aid in blood clotting.

A CBC test may reveal any unusual increases or dips in these cell counts, which could point to the presence of an underlying medical issue that needs further investigation.

Post-prandial Glucose Test:

This blood glucose test establishes the level of a specific kind of sugar, known as glucose. In this test, blood glucose levels are measured, particularly after eating.

Usually, after eating a meal, blood glucose levels slightly increase. The pancreas releases insulin in response to this expansion, aiding the body in removing glucose from the blood and storing it for use as energy when needed. Diabetes patients may not produce enough insulin or respond to it properly, which raises their blood glucose levels. The eyes, kidneys, veins and nerves can all suffer severe damage from high blood sugar levels.

A 2-hour PPBS test precisely monitors blood glucose 2 hours after consuming a meal. By this time, glucose levels have often decreased in healthy individuals, although they may still rise in diabetes patients. It then acts as a test to determine whether a person has diabetes or to determine how well a person with diabetes is managing their blood glucose levels.

Cholesterol Test: 

Diabetes significantly raises a person’s risk of developing heart disease, necessitating more frequent blood tests to check their cholesterol levels in the unlikely event that they are high.


A certain type of fat called triglycerides is commonly present in the blood. The risk of developing coronary artery disease rises when triglyceride levels rise, particularly in women.

Blood tests are used to determine a person’s triglyceride levels as well as cholesterol levels. Triglycerides should be under 150. Levels over 200 are considered high.

A person’s triglyceride level typically rises as a result of:

  • Excess weight
  • Inadequate exercise
  • Excessive Smoking\Alcohol consumption
  • Genetic conditions

Triglyceride levels can be decreased by making a variety of lifestyle adjustments, such as:

  • Healthy diet
  • Weight loss
  • Regular workout

Creatinine Blood Test: 

A blood creatinine test determines the amount of creatinine in the patient’s blood. When creatine separates, creatinine is an unwanted byproduct that forms. Your muscles contain creatine. Blood creatinine levels might give your doctor information about how well your kidneys are working.

Electrolytes Test: 

This blood test evaluates potassium, chloride, sodium, and bicarbonate (CO2), the body’s primary electrolytes. It can be used to assess heart disease symptoms and track the success of therapy for high blood pressure, heart failure, liver, and kidney illness. 

Insulin Auto Antibodies (IAA):

This test looks for antibodies that are directed against insulin. In addition to attacking beta cells, the immune system of persons with type 1 diabetes target insulin.

C-Peptide Test: 

This test determines how much C-peptide is present in a person’s blood. The test is mostly used to determine how much insulin an individual’s body is making because levels of this peptide typically correspond to insulin levels in the body. Low levels of insulin and C-peptide typically indicate type 1 diabetes.