7 Different Medical Fields That Are Common Today

The medical field operates as a relay race, with doctors, nurses, and other care providers all contributing to the healing process. It’s hard to imagine a world without medical professionals. Advancements in technology and medical science have led to the development of several new medical fields in the last few decades. You’ve probably never heard of some of them, but they’re still part of the standard care process.

Family Medicine

Family medicine is a medical specialty focusing on comprehensive care for individuals of all ages, from newborns to the elderly. It emphasizes on preventing illnesses, promoting wellness, and resolving common health issues. Family medicine physicians diagnose and treat various diseases and injuries, from the common cold to cancer. They prescribe medications, recommend treatment options, coordinate care for family members, and provide health education.


OBGYN stands for obstetrics and gynecology. Obstetricians and gynecologists specialize in diagnosing and treating women’s internal and external reproductive organs. This includes pre-conception care, prenatal care, and post-partum care. OBGYN doctors diagnose and treat various illnesses, such as breast cancer, testicular cancer, endometriosis, infertility issues, urinary tract infections, and many more. You may also interact with them regarding sexual health and sexually transmitted diseases.


Cardiology is the discipline of treating diseases and conditions of the heart and blood vessels. Cardiologists diagnose and treat heart conditions such as heart attack, arrhythmia, angina, abnormal heartbeat, cardiovascular disease, or heart failure. Physicians in this field are designated to subspecialties such as cardiac electrophysiology, cardiac surgery, adult cardiac intensive care, congenital heart disease, echocardiography, interventional cardiology, and pediatric cardiology. The discipline also includes the study of cardiovascular pharmacology and therapeutics.


Psychiatry is concerned with assessing, diagnosing, and treating mental and behavioral disorders. It includes the assessment of the entire person and insight into their psychological makeup. Psychiatrists specialize in diagnosing and treating conditions that have a psychological basis, including substance-abuse disorders, eating disorders, anxiety disorders, mood disorders, psychotic disorders, personality disorders, (see Enneagram test), and more. Behavioral techniques for treating mental disorders include psychotherapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, behavioral correction therapy, and behavioral medicine.


Neurologists diagnose and treat various conditions of the nervous system. These include strokes, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, dementia, and more. They also evaluate patients with brain or spinal cord injuries to determine the causes and prevent further injury. The field includes the subspecialties of pediatric neurology, clinical neurophysiology, neuropathology, and more.


Orthopedic specialists diagnose and treat musculoskeletal problems. They focus on correcting structural problems in bones or joints caused by degeneration, trauma, or congenital disabilities. The physicians diagnose and treat bone fractures, arthritis, sports injuries, spinal disorders, and other orthopedic conditions. They may also provide care for chronically ill patients.

Internal Medicine

Internal medicine refers to diagnosing and evaluating diseases, injuries, and other health conditions of the human body. These physicians care for all complaints that do not fall under the care of another specialty. The internal medicine doctor will coordinate your care with other specialists as needed.

The medical field is continually evolving and growing. With so many new specialties and subspecialties, it’s hard to keep track of them all. As medical science advances and we uncover more about how the body works, we’ll continue to grow and learn how to take care of it.